英语插图例文分享:The Public Intoxication Phenomenon Among College Athletes in America

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The Public Intoxication Phenomenon Among College Athletes in America

Three Fresno state athletes have been charged and booked after they were arrested at a house party. Fresno State’s twenty-one-year-old starting quarterback named Mark has been charged for having alcohol and being a minor. Bill, a twenty-one-year-old linebacker, has been charged for obstructing a police officer. A twenty-three-year-old captain of the women’s soccer team named Jessica will face a misdemeanor charge for public intoxication; all three athletes will serve one game suspensions. Mark refused to leave the scene when asked due to the fact that he was a minor. Bill was not being cooperative toward officers by refusing to take a Breathalyzer test. The 23-year old soccer player had a blood alcohol level of 0.136 and the legal driving limit is 0.08. If convicted, all three students could face up to one year in county jail. These stories are often in the news about college athletes because they are known more throughout the community, so they are spotted easily than a non-athlete. So any little altercation they get into or law they break they will be picked out and addressed by the authorities or faculty. Athletes also have different motives as to why they drink compared to everyone else because they have different stressors than their counterparts. The consequences an athlete can face are more severe than a member of the student body because there are a series of standards that an athlete has to uphold. The reduction of the amount of alcohol consumption by a student-athlete has to be at a moderate amount due to their involvement and presence at school. This paper will investigate why this is a recurring phenomenon among college athletes. They consume alcohol more frequently and at a higher quantity as opposed to their colleagues due to their different mentalities.
Body paragraphs (excerpt)
The Amount of Alcohol College Athletes Consume
Student athletes are known to consume more alcoholic beverages than their fellow non-athlete counterparts. Athletes partake in what is called binge drinking; this method of drinking is defined as drinking five or more beverages with in the course of an hour (Tewksbury, Higgins, & Mustaine, 2008). College is a major transition in the course of one’s life, meaning that they are making a shift from adolescence into young adulthood. Athletes drink more than their fellow students because they are put under more pressure. These pressures have multiple causes like the coach asking for optimal performance, as well as balancing classroom expectations (Doumas, Turrisi, Coll, & Haraso, 2007).One big reason for the consumption is that they do not know any of the college community due to their regimented school schedule because they have to fit it time for practice throughout the day. So it eliminates any flexibility for interaction with anyone outside his or her immediate group. Social norms theory applies to alcohol use in athletes because they generally overestimate what they counterparts are drinking, Perceived norms and acceptability of alcohol use correlate with personal drinking because they are trying to keep up with everyone else (Martens, Dams-O’Connor, Duffy-Paiement, & Gibson ,2006). They are so desperate to fit in that they will do anything it takes to gain that acceptance. Athletes have to deal with unique stressors in comparison with students who are non-athletes. They play more value on opinions and behaviors of those with similar problems because that who is they associate with more during the course of the day (Martens et al.). Research on college drinking has supported the social norm theory. Providing evidence that perceived alcohol usage is exploited mostly among college athletes because of certain reinforcements.
Motives That Attribute to Athletes Over Consumption of Alcohol
A positively reinforced internal motive to drink is to enhance your mood states. Meaning since an athlete is being demanded to compete at a high caliber for two to three hours during practice as well as games during the weekend. So they need a way to release that stress which comes by way of consuming alcohol. Another motive to drink is a more external reason. They use alcohol as a familiar commodity that they can relate to and enjoy together. The external motive for drinking is to avoid rejection from peers, since athletes only associate with their fellow athletes and if they do not follow along and drink they will be rejected from the athletic group and they will basically be alone throughout their college life. One last internal motive to drink is being criticized and belittled by the coach, which puts them in more of a negative mood. Studies reported that student athletes report high levels of social motives than non-athletes (Perkins, Westley, & David, 2006). As young athletes enter new environments their fellow teammates help determine what attitudes and behaviors are expected to be appropriate. Peer influence is especially significant for highly integrated groups. (Andes, Poet, & McWilliams, 2012) did a study one-alcohol consumption, particularly with regard to high-risk behavior such as drinking games. The athletes drinking may increase drinking as their season increases because there are pressures to be perfect because they may be close to playoffs. In a study done on college athletes, intramural athletes they discovered that they drank more than non-athletes, but there is no difference between intramural athletes and intercollegiate athletes. The amount of sport involvement and increased so did the binge drinking. College athletes have the “work hard play hard” athletic identity is the extent to which a person identifies with an athletic role so they have the mentality so they fill the need to be the person that drinks the most and who is the alpha male. Individuals with low levels of athletic activity or involvement drink less because they usually don’t get invited. One stigma that follows players is their competitiveness; their competitiveness does not just stay on the field it translates to drinking. They are more susceptible to binge drink because they do not like losing and always want to be the best. So they can drink past the point where normal non-athletes would stop.


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